Copan–FM is used to map and model networked facilities such as electrical distribution systems. Copan-FM runs on the Windows operating system.
Copan-FM was designed to enable a user to easily build a model of networked facilities, such as an electrical distribution system, which includes graphics, attributes, and connectivity.
Copan-FM stores the graphics, attribute, and connectivity data for a map sheet in a single file. This simplifies file management and avoids problems with missing or unlinked files.
Copan-FM addresses the issues of capturing graphics, attributes, and connectivity. It attempts to do this for each area without compromising the others. To this end, although a device is stored in Copan-FM as a single entity, the graphics, attributes, and connectivity are fairly independent. Connectivity is not affected by graphics; the location of a symbol does not affect connectivity. The graphics, attributes, and connectivity are physically linked together as data but other than that, they are independent.
The rest of this paper will address Copan-FM as implemented for electrical distribution networks. However, Copan-FM may be modified to serve other networked systems such as municipal sewer and water systems.
Distribution devices may have more than one electrical connection. Conductors, transformers, and switching devices have two connections while devices such as capacitors have one connection. Copan-FM models these devices correctly connectivity-wise. Additionally, the Circuit Trace function can discriminate between open and closed switches during its operation.
Using Copan-FM (Electric) requires some knowledge of how electrical distribution systems work. You will need to know what the components are and how they are related to each other (through electrical connections). If you have this knowledge, Copan-FM (Electric) is fairly easy to learn to use.
Copan-FM (Electric) Demonstration Software
This Copan-FM (Electric) software is built as a demonstration package. Not all the features and options of Copan-FM have been included. There is sufficient functionality, though, to demonstrate the key features of Copan-FM.
The full version of Copan-FM includes import and export functions and the full functionality of Copan CAD .
Below is the toolbar containing the Electric tools of the Copan-FM (Electric) demonstration software.
Add Electric Tools:
Tools are provided to add the following distribution electrical facilities to a Copan-FM drawing:
After selecting the tool, follow the step-by-step instructions at the bottom of the Copan-FM window to place the selected electrical component.
Other Electric Tools:
- select an electrical object including attribute record and all graphics records
- cumulative; can select more than one
- used to select objects for the deletion using the Delete tool
- unselect all selected electrical objects
- edit electrical attributes of an object
- does not edit objects selected using the Select tool. Click on an electric object after choosing the Edit tool.
- edit connection data
- see Modifying Electric Connectivity below for an explanation of the electrical connectivity scheme.
- does not edit objects selected using the Select tool. Click on an electric object after choosing the Edit tool.
- trace the electrical network from a point
- conductors and devices traced are shown in bold
- you may select whether trace stops at open points or not
- trace results are cumulative
- clears the results of Trace
- move pole and all electrical objects attached to the pole
- moves primary, secondary, or service at pole to another pole
- move a primary device (transformer, switch, fuse, capacitor) from one pole
to another pole. It will connect to the primary at the new location. If the device
has two connections, the second connection should be reviewed and edited.
- delete selected device(s) or conductor. All associated records (attribute, text) are deleted.
- analyze the electrical network for logical connectivity problems
This will guide you in creating a quick, small circuit and help you get started in using Copan-FM (Electric).
1. Start Copan-FM. The Electric Tool Bar is on the left side of the window.
2. Select the Pole tool. The Pole attribute dialog box will appear. Select appropriate values and press “OK”. Now, check the message in the lower left corner of the Copan-FM window for instructions. Place the pole by positioning the cursor over the desired location and then left-click with the pointing device.
3. Repeat Step 2 and place a few more poles.
4. Find the Primary tool icon in the Tool Bar and press it. The Primary Conductor attribute dialog box will appear. Select appropriate values and press “OK”. Place the cursor over a pole which is to be one endpoint and left-click. Place the cursor over other pole which is to be the second endpoint and left-click. The primary conductor is then created and placed between the two poles. Copan-FM will remain in the Primary mode until a new tool is selected.
5. Place more Primary conductors so that a span exists between all the poles. New primary conductors will be connected to adjacent Primary spans if they share the same Circuit ID.
6. Find and select the Transformer tool icon. Select appropriate values in the attribute dialog box and press OK.
Place the cursor over a Primary conductor close to the Pole which the Transformer is to be located and left-click. Next, use the cursor to establish the rotation of the Transformer symbol and left-click. The Transformer will then be placed on the Pole and connected to the Primary conductor.
7. Find and select the Secondary tool icon. The Secondary Conductor attribute dialog box will appear. Select appropriate values and press “OK”.
Place the cursor over a pole which is to be one endpoint and left-click. Select the side of the pole the conductor graphics is to be offset to by indicating with the cursor and left-clicking. Place the cursor over the other pole which is to be the second endpoint and left-click. The secondary conductor is then created and placed between the two poles. Copan-FM will remain in the Secondary mode until a new tool is selected.
8. Place more Secondary conductors so that a span exists between all the poles. New secondary conductors will be connected to adjacent secondary spans if they share the same Circuit ID.
9. Now it is time to see what you have created. From the Electric Toolbar, select “Edit”. Then, place the cursor over the edge of a pole and left-click. The pole attribute dialog box will appear showing the attributes for that pole. You may edit the attributes if you wish.
10. Try editing the attributes of the conductors and transformer.
11. Next try out the Trace Circuit function.
There are various options to this function. You may trace either the primary or secondary circuit only or both. You may also stop at open points or continue. In the sample circuit that you have just created, there are no open points but there are primary and secondary circuitry to experiment with. First, try tracing both primary and secondary. Make that choice in the dialog box and select OK to proceed.
Place the cursor over a conductor or another device and left-click. After a short wait (depending on the number of conductors and devices), the device selected and all devices connected to it will be highlighted.
To remove the results of the Trace, use the Clear Trace function.
Modifying Electric Connectivity
The electrical connections of a device may be changed by editing the connection data for that device. A function to do this, Edit Ptcon, is found in the toolbar. It works in the same manner as the Edit function. Place the cursor over the device whose connection(s) that you wish to modify and left-click. A dialog window will appear to allow you to modify the connection data.
Copan-FM uses a simple scheme to model connectivity. Each connection is represented by three parameters and these are stored as attributes of the device record. The three parameters are x, y, and connector number. The x and y are used to describe a location and these are independent from the device’s graphics x and Y. The connector number is used to differentiate between nodes which share the same x and Y. This makes it possible for connections at the same x and y to be not connected electrically.
Two or more connection points are considered electrically connected if they share the same connection x, y, and connector number. This allows many connectors to exist at a logical x, a y point and for various connectors to be connected together at that point.
A device will have either one or two connections. This allows for distribution devices to be modeled correctly. Also because, the connections are independent of the graphics, there are no compromises to the graphic representation or to the electrical network.
A simple example is shown on the next page which illustrates how electrical network connectivity is modeled by Copan-FM.
An Illustration of Connectivity
At a pole (circle) there are the ends of two primary conductors (solid lines), the ends of two secondary conductors (dashed lines), one transformer (triangle symbol), and one switch. These are shown in the above diagram. The numbers in the illustration represent the connector ids of each device. The logical x, y’s of the devices are not shown because they are at the same logical point so they would have the same x, y.
Although all the devices share the same x,y, they do not share the same connection id. In this case, the following connectors are used:
pole - connector 1
transformer - connector 2, connector 3
switch - connector 4, connector 2
end of 1st primary - connector 4
end of 2nd primary - connector 2
end of 1st secondary – connector 3
end of 2nd secondary - connector 3
Analyzing the connection data, we can see that the pole is not connected to anything as it has its own connector (id = 1).
The two primaries are not connected directly to each other but through the switch; the end of the primary with connector id = 2 connects to the switch connector with id = 2 and the primary with connector id = 4 connects to the switch with connector id =4.
The transformer is also connected to a primary since its connector id = 2 matches that of one end of primary and switch. The secondary connection of the transformer, id = 3, is connected to the two ends of the secondaries which have the same connector ids.
QC File: C:\Copan-FM\Sample\electric3.qc.txt
2544.224 3029.737 ERROR: OH Xfmr pri. and sec. connected together.
2544.224 3029.737 ERROR: OH Xfmr pri. not connected to pri. conductor.
In this example, a Primary Circuit Trace would have also shown that the transformer noted is not connected to the primary conductor.
The Copan-FM electric network model does not depend strictly on the graphics so it is possible to move and rotate the graphic elements without affecting the electrical model.
To edit an electric graphic, it must first be selected using the graphic tools. The Select function is found in the toolbar at the top of the program window. Use the Pointing (exclusive) function to select a single graphic item.
After a graphic has been selected, right-click with the mouse in the drawing, in the drawing area to pop-up the menu with the graphic editing functions.
Configure Graphics Options
The sizes of graphic symbols and text used in depicting the electrical objects may be set according to your preferences. Set the Model-space options from the Drawing pull-down menu.
You may set options for Inserts and Text. The relevant options are the Height and Width.
Set the Insert and Text sizes to ones appropriate for the scale that you wish to create the drawing at.